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Grasslands Observatory: Color Images of Selected Arp Galaxies

These tri-color CCD images were obtained at various times from 1996 to the present. The very earliest were taken with an HPC-1 camera (1024 x 1024, twelve micron TI chip) or an Apogee AP7 camera (512 x 512, 24 micron SITe chip). The HPC-1 was an excellent early camera with small pixels. The AP7 had a greater photon efficiency, particularly in the blue portion of the spectrum.

In March 2001, a Finger Lakes Instrumentation Dream Machine CCD camera was installed at the Grasslands Observatory. This camera has a high quantum efficiency SITe 1024 x 1024 twenty-four micron CCD chip. It provides a nearly 28 minute field of view on the 24-inch f/5 reflector at the observatory. The Dream Machine is used in operation with a Finger Lakes Instrumentation CFW-1 Color Filter Wheel and an Optec TCF temperature compensating focuser. The filter wheel contains Photometric R, V, B and I filters and also has an Open slot (O) and a Clear filter (C). This instrument combination is now used for much of the imaging at the Grasslands Observatory.

Exposures typically range from R = 1 minute, Green (V) = 1.5 minutes, B = 2 minutes, and O = 1-2 minutes to R = 4 minutes, Green (V) = 6 minutes, B = 8 minutes, and O = 5-20 minutes for the Dream Machine CCD camera. Short exposures are used for bright clusters, and long exposures are used for faint galaxies and nebulae. Most color imaging now is performed using a Luminance technique with Open or Clear exposures used for the Luminance (L) part of the color composition.

In late 2007 a Quantum Scientific Imaging (QSI) 532 CCD was acquired with an LRGB filter set as well as a hydrogen alpha filter all residing in the QSI 532 internal color wheel.  The QSI 532 CCD has a Kodak KAF-3200ME 2184 x 1472 chip with 6.8 micron pixels.  This camera can give very high resolution images with the 24-inch telescope, but guiding is critical, and 2x2 binning is sometimes used for imaging.  Typical exposures for black and white pictures are 5-minute single exposures or three to ten 5-minute exposures median combined.  For color imaging, the black and white exposures are combined with 5 minute or longer exposures through red, green, and blue, or hydrogen alpha filters.

tbh 18 April 2010


Camea Close-up.jpg (47952 bytes)
Dream Machine CCD Camera combined with a Finger Lakes CFW-1 Color Filter Wheel

All images are oriented with the North at the top and the West to the right.

Arp Galaxy Other Name(s) Thumbnail Image
14 NGC7314
16 M66; NGC3627 m66.jpg (27996 bytes)
AP7 image

Dream Machine image 

ST10 CCD image

25 NGC2276 (Arp25); NGC2300 (Arp114) Arp114 and Arp25
26 M101; NGC5457 m101.jpg (14732 bytes)
AP7 image

Dream Machine image

Takahashi Epsilon 180 telescope, Canon 20Da camera, five 10-minute exposures median combined.

29 NGC6946; Caldwell12
37 M77; NGC1068
41 NGC1232 ngc1232(Arp41).jpg (50168 bytes)

71 NGC6045
76 M90; NGC4659 + IC3583
77 NGC1097; Caldwell67

78 NGC772+770 Arp78
84 NGC5935/5934; UGC8900 Arp84.jpg (23119 bytes)
85 M51; NGC5194/5195; Whirlpool Galaxy m51(Arp85).TIF (1030036 bytes)
AP7 image

Dream Machine image

94 NCG3226+3227
114 and 25 NGC2300; NGC2276
116 M60; NGC4649

Meade LXD55 8-inch f/4 images with QSI 532 CCD. The major objects are labeled in the below image.


120 NGC4438+4435
123 NGC1888; MCG-2-14-13 arp123.jpg (119299 bytes)
134 M49; NGC4472 M49
135 NGC1023
Dream Machine image

QSI 532 image


152 M87; NGC4486
153 NGC5128; Centaurus A; Caldwell77 ngc5128(Arp153).TIF (707868 bytes)
AP7 image

Dream Machine image

154 NGC1316 Arp154
157 NGC520 ngc520(Arp157).tif (2534122 bytes)

168 M32; NGC221; UGC452
184 NGC1961
206 NGC3432
214 NGC3718 Arp214
243 NGC2623 ngc2623.jpg (57929 bytes)
244 NGC4038; NGC4039; Antennae, Ring-Tail Galaxy; Caldwell60-61 ngc4038(Arp244).TIF (2737739 bytes)
AP7 image


Dream Machine image

268 UGC4305
269 NGC4490+4485 Arp269
270 NGC3395 ngc3395(Arp270).tif (1060514 bytes)
Ap7 image

Dream Machine image

281 NGC4631; Caldwell32
299 NGC3690 ngc3690.jpg (21557 bytes)
Shown are Arp296 (small galaxy up and to the left) and NGC3690 interacting with IC694.
316 NGC3139; Hickson 44B Arp316

Dream Machine CCD image

317 M65; NGC3623 m65(Arp317).TIF (737322 bytes)
AP7 image

Dream Machine image

M65 and M66

319 NGC7320; Stephans Quintet ngc7320.jpg (70767 bytes)
AP7 image

337 M82; NGC3034; Cigar Galaxy m82(Arp337).tif (2765267 bytes)
AP7 image

Dream Machine image

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